Indonesian culture .
The national culture
The national culture is easy to understand as a culture that is recognized as a national identity. The definition of national culture according to MPR No.II of 1998, namely:
The national culture is based on Pancasila is the embodiment of creativity, work and intention of Indonesia and is an overall effort to develop Indonesia's human dignity as a nation, and are directed to provide insight and meaning to national development in all fields of national life. Thus the National Development is a development of culture.
Also mentioned in the next chapter that national culture also reflect the noble values of the nation. It appears that the limits of national culture that formulated by the government-oriented national development based on the spirit of Pancasila.
National culture in view of Ki Hajar Dewantara is "the peaks of the regional culture". Quote this statement refers to understand the unity of the more established, so that more and more perceived than ketunggalikaan diversity. His form a unitary state, national economy, national laws, as well as the national language. Definition given by Koentjaraningrat can be seen from peryataannya: "a distinctive and quality of any ethnic origin, the origin could identify themselves and create a sense of pride, that national culture". This statement refers to the tops of the regional culture and ethnic culture which can cause a sense of pride for Indonesia if they are shown to represent a shared identity.
Statements contained in the Guidelines of State Policy is a translation of the 1945 Constitution Article 32. Today the figures are questioning the existence of the Indonesian culture and national culture, regional culture related to the abolition of the three sentence explanation to section 32 and the emergence of a new paragraph. They questioned the possibility of division by the culture of the region if the boundary of the national culture is not explained clearly.
Before the amendment, the 1945 uses two terms to identify the areas of culture and national culture. National culture, is the old cultures and contained the original as a peak-peak areas throughout Indonesia, while the national culture itself is understood as a cultural geese already be in a position that has meaning for the whole of Indonesia. In a unifying national culture there are elements of Banga Indonesia is already aware of and had a late spread nationally. In it there are elements of national culture and foreign cultural elements, as well as elements of a new creation or invention of national results.
The whole area of culture that come from diverse cultural ethnic groups in Indonesia are an integral part of Indonesian culture.
Indonesia Cultural although varied, but basically formed and influenced by other great cultures such as Chinese culture, Indian culture and Arab culture. Indian culture, especially coming from the spread of Hindu and Buddhist religions in the archipelago long before Indonesia was formed. Kingdoms breath Hinduism and Buddhism was dominated archipelago in the 5th century BC was marked by the founding of the oldest kingdoms in the archipelago, Kutai, until the end of the 15th century AD.
Chinese culture in and influence the culture of Indonesia due to the interaction of intense trade between Chinese merchants and Nusantara (Srivijaya). In addition, many of them entered with nomads-Chinese nomads who came from southern China and settled in the archipelago. They settled and married local residents produces a mix of local Chinese culture and unique. Culture like this that later became one of the roots of modern local culture than in Indonesia such as Javanese and Betawi culture.
Arab culture entered along with the spread of Islam by Arab traders who arrive in the archipelago on their way to China.
The arrival of European explorers since the 16th century to the archipelago, and the subsequent ongoing occupation, carrying various forms of Western culture and shaping modern Indonesian culture as it can be found now. Technological, organizational and political systems, social systems, various elements of culture such as cuisine, fashion, economy, and so on, are adopting western culture which is gradually integrated into society.Kinds of Indonesian Culture